The Republic of Korea or South Korea is located in eastern Asia, on the southern half of the Korean peninsula jutting out from the far east of the Asian land mass. The only adjacent country is the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the north with a 238 km border along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). South Korea is mostly surrounded by water and therefore has 2,413 km of coastline along three seas, the Yellow Sea to the west, the Southwest China Sea to the southeast, and to the is the Sea of Japan (or East Sea for Koreans). With 98,480 km2, South Korea is slightly smaller than Bulgaria. 290 km2 of South Korea is occupied by fresh water. The approximate coordinates are 37 ° North, 127 ° 30 East. South Korea has nearly 3,000 islands located in the west and south of the peninsula.
70% of South Korea is made up of mountains, oriented in the north-south axis, making east-west communications difficult. The chain of the Taebaek mountains builds the arched shape of the east coast, on a north-south axis.
South Korea has a humid continental climate (Dwa according to the Köppen classification) with the exception of the southern and eastern coasts where frost is practically free during winter days and therefore fall into the category humid subtropical climate (Cwa) but with four distinct seasons.
Winters are cold, dry, sunny and windy from December to February with occasional rain and snowfall.
Spring begins at the end of March at the beginning of April when the trees turn green again. From March to May, the weather is very good.
Summers are hot and humid with abundant vegetation. The average maximum temperatures reach 30 ° C. Monsoon usually begins around the end of June and ends in September. August remains hot and humid with less rainfall.
Autumn begins at the end of September, continental winds arrive and a clear, dry climate makes the fall season along with spring the most pleasant time of year. In October the colorful panorama of trees becomes dazzling.
On the southern coasts, the natural vegetation is an evergreen laurel-type forest while most of the country is normally covered by deciduous forest. In the Northeast, where the mountains are higher, the harsh climate allows conifers to develop and form a mixed forest biome characterized in particular by the presence of Korean pine and Manchurian fir1.